J.M. Sforcin∗ Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Biosciences Institute, UNESP, 18618-000 Botucatu, SP, Brazil
has been used empirically for centuries and it was always mentioned as
an immunomodulatory agent. In recent years, in vitro and in vivo assays
provided new information concerning its mechanisms of action, thus a
review dealing with propolis and the immune system became imperative.
This review compiles data from our laboratory as well as from other
researchers, focusing on its chemical composition and botanical
sources, the seasonal effect on its composition and biological
properties, its immunomodulatory and antitumor properties, considering
its effects on antibody production and on different cells of the immune
system, involving the innate and adaptive immune response. In vitro and
in vivo assays demonstrated the modulatory action of propolis on murine
peritoneal macrophages, increasing their microbicidal activity. Its
stimulant action on the lytic activity of natural killer cells against
tumor cells, and on antibody production was demonstrated. Propolis
inhibitory effects on lymphoproliferation may be associated to its
anti-inﬂammatory property. In immunological assays, the best results
were observed when propolis was administered over a short-term to
animals. Propolis antitumor property and its anticarcinogenic and
antimutagenic potential are discussed. Since humans have used propolis
for different purposes and propolis-containing products have been
marketed, the knowledge of its properties with scientiﬁc basis is not
only of academic interest but also of those who use propolis as well.
This review opens a new perspective on the investigation of propolis
biological properties, mainly with respect to the immune system.
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